1N4007: Application areas, test methods and alternative models

By Taiwan Semiconductor 1069

1N4007: Application areas, test methods and alternative models

1N4007 is a widely used general purpose diode, which is usually built to be used as a rectifier in the power supply section of electronic equipment for converting AC voltage to DC voltage for use with other filter capacitors. It has high reverse breakdown voltage and large forward current capacity, and is commonly used in DC power supplies and low-frequency circuits.

1N4007 is a plastic-encapsulated general-purpose silicon material rectifier diode with a DO-41 package. Also known as a silicon rectifier diode, it has high voltage, high current characteristics and can withstand reverse voltages up to 1000 volts and forward current up to 1 amp. 1N4007 uses the unidirectional conductivity of the diode to convert alternating current in alternating directions into pulsed direct current in a single direction.


Ⅰ.Specification parameters of 1N4007


•Number of pins:2
•Capacitance:15 pF
•Configuration:Single
•Load current:1 A
•Rated power:3 W
•Recovery time:1.5 us
•Product Category:Rectifier
•If-forward current:1 A
•Product:Rectifiers
•Ir-reverse current:5 uA
•Vf-forward voltage:1.1 V
•Maximum surge current:27 A
•Package/Box:DO-41
•Vr-reverse voltage:1 kV
•Minimum operating temperature:-50℃
•Maximum operating temperature:+175℃
•Package:Ammo Pack
•Output current:≤1.00 A
•Forward voltage:1.1V @1A
•Thermal resistance:50℃/W (RθJA)
•Installation style:Through Hole
•Subcategories:Diodes & Rectifiers
•Type:Standard Recovery Rectifiers
•Voltage-DC reverse (Vr) (maximum):1000 V
•Speed:Standard recovery >500ns, >200mA (Io)

 

Ⅱ.Characteristics of 1N4007


•Long life and high reliability: 1N4007 has the characteristics of good reliability and long service life, which can ensure the long-term stable operation of electronic equipment.

•Package diversity: It can adopt different packaging forms, such as DO-41 packaging, which is convenient for installation and use.

•Low forward voltage drop: The forward voltage drop of 1N4007 is generally around 0.7V, which makes it widely used in low-frequency circuits.

•Good temperature characteristics: The performance of 1N4007 is relatively stable within a certain temperature range, the temperature characteristics are good, and it is suitable for circuit design under various environmental conditions.

•Wide range of applications: 1N4007 is often used in rectifier circuits in DC power supplies to convert AC power into DC power, and is also commonly used in low-frequency circuits as reverse protection.

•Good thermal stability: 1N4007 has good thermal stability and can work stably in a wide temperature range. This makes it suitable for use in electronic equipment under various ambient temperature conditions.

•Fast recovery time: Although 1N4007 is an ordinary rectifier diode, it has a fast recovery time. This means that during the switching process, it can quickly return from the on state to the off state, improving the efficiency of the circuit.

•High reverse voltage and large current capacity: 1N4007 has a high reverse peak voltage of 1000 volts and can withstand large forward operating current, up to 1 A. This makes it suitable for high voltage and high current applications.


Ⅲ.Working principle of 1N4007


The working principle of the 1N4007 diode is mainly based on the unidirectional conductivity of the PN junction. When the anode of the 1N4007 diode is connected to a high potential and the cathode is connected to a low potential, the diode is in a forward biased state. At this time, the internal electric field in the PN junction is weakened and the diffusion current is greater than the drift current, making the diode present a low resistance state and the current can flow smoothly. Ground passes, and the forward voltage drop of the diode is about 0.7V. This forward voltage drop is caused by the resistance between the anode and the cathode after the diode is turned forward. Its value is usually between 0.6-0.7V. The specific value depends on factors such as current size and temperature.

1N4007 is composed of P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor materials, which are connected to each other through an interface called PN junction. In a PN junction, the P region is rich in positive charge carriers (holes), while the N region is rich in negative charge carriers (electrons).

When the positive electrode of 1N4007 is connected to the P region and the negative electrode is connected to the N region, the direction of the applied voltage causes the positive charges in the P region to move toward the negative charges in the N region. This narrows the depletion layer in the PN junction region, thereby reducing resistance. In this case, current can pass through the diode, the diode is in a conducting state, and the voltage is reduced to a very small value, called the forward conduction voltage.

When the direction of the applied voltage is such that the positive electrode is connected to the N region and the negative electrode is connected to the P region, the depletion layer in the PN junction region will become wider, the resistance will increase, and almost no current will pass. At this time, the diode is in a cut-off state and the reverse voltage can be very high until it reaches its reverse breakdown voltage.

When the anode of the 1N4007 diode is connected to a low potential and the cathode is connected to a high potential, the diode is in a reverse biased state. At this time, the internal electric field in the PN junction is enhanced, the diffusion current is almost zero, and the drift current dominates, making the diode appear in a high resistance state and it is difficult for current to pass through. If the reverse voltage exceeds the reverse breakdown voltage of the diode, the diode will be damaged.

In the rectifier circuit, the 1N4007 diode uses its unidirectional conductivity to convert alternating current in alternating directions into direct current in a single direction. In the forward biased state, the diode conducts, allowing current to pass; in the reverse biased state, the diode blocks, preventing current from passing through. By continuously turning on and off, the 1N4007 diode converts alternating current into direct current.


Ⅳ.Maximum Ratings of 1N4007

 

Ⅴ.Characteristics of 1N4007

 

Ⅵ.In which circuits does 1N4007 perform best?


1.Single-phase half-wave rectifier circuit: 1N4007 can be used in single-phase half-wave rectifier circuit to convert alternating current into pulsed direct current. This circuit structure is simple, and the high reverse voltage and large current capacity of the 1N4007 make it an ideal choice.

2.Bridge rectifier circuit: 1N4007 also performs well in bridge rectifier circuits. This circuit requires four 1N4007 rectifier diodes, which can convert alternating current into direct current and provide a smoother output voltage waveform. The 1N4007's low forward voltage drop and fast recovery time make bridge rectifier circuits more efficient.

3.Protection circuit: 1N4007 can also be used as part of a protection circuit to prevent reverse current flow. When the direction of current in a circuit changes, diodes prevent the current from flowing in the opposite direction, thereby protecting electronic equipment from damage.

4.Single-phase full-wave rectification circuit: In this circuit, two 1N4007s need to be used together to achieve full-wave rectification. Because of its fast recovery time and good thermal stability, it can efficiently handle current and voltage changes during full-wave rectification.

5.Inductive load switching circuit: 1N4007 can be used as a flywheel diode, suitable for switching circuits of inductive loads (such as solenoid valves, relays, etc.). Its high reverse voltage and fast recovery time make it ideal for handling inductive loads.

 

Ⅶ.Application fields of 1N4007


1.Switching power supply: In switching power supply, 1N4007 diode is used to protect the switching tube from damage by reverse voltage. Its main functions include:

•Freewheeling effect: When the switching tube of the switching power supply (such as MOSFET or IGBT) is turned off, a reverse voltage may be generated in the circuit due to the presence of energy storage components such as inductors. The 1N4007 diode provides a path to allow these reverse currents to flow, thereby preventing the switch tube from suffering excessive reverse voltage. This helps protect the switching tube and prolongs its service life.

•Rectification function: In some switching power supply topologies, 1N4007 diodes are also used as rectifier diodes to convert AC input into DC output and provide stable DC power supply to the load.

•Protect the switch tube: The switch tube may encounter rapidly changing voltages and currents during the switching process, especially when the switch tube is turned off. If the current cannot be quickly transferred to other paths, the switch tube may be damaged. The 1N4007 diode provides a path for quickly diverting current, thereby protecting the switching tube from these rapidly changing voltages and currents.

2.Inverter: In an inverter, 1N4007 diodes are usually not used directly to convert DC power into AC power. The working principle of the inverter is to periodically switch the positive and negative poles of the DC power supply through electronic switching devices (such as transistors, IGBTs, etc.) to generate alternating current. In this process, the 1N4007 diode may be used as a rectifier to rectify the AC power from the inverter into DC power to supply to the battery or other loads that require DC power.

3.Motor control: In some motor control circuits, 1N4007 can be used to protect components such as thyristors or relays in the circuit to prevent reverse voltage damage. The function of 1N4007 diode in these occasions is mainly as a freewheeling diode or a reverse voltage protection diode. When a reverse voltage occurs in the circuit, the diode will conduct quickly and guide the reverse current to a low-impedance path, thus preventing sensitive components from suffering excessive reverse voltage. In this way, the diode effectively protects the thyristor, relay and other components in the control circuit from damage. The 1N4007 diode also has a certain surge current tolerance and can withstand to a certain extent the instantaneous high current generated when the motor is started.

4.Power supplies and chargers: 1N4007 diodes can convert alternating current into direct current, so they are often used in various types of power supplies and chargers. In power supply and charger applications, 1N4007 diodes are typically not the primary component used to directly convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). This conversion is usually accomplished with a rectifier bridge (consisting of four diodes) rather than a single diode. The function of the rectifier bridge is to convert both the positive and negative half cycles of the alternating current into a single direct current output. It is often used as a component in a rectifier bridge, along with three other diodes, to convert alternating current to direct current. In this case, the 1N4007 diode has a lower forward voltage drop, can withstand higher forward current, and has better reverse voltage tolerance.

5.Switching power supply: In switching power supply, 1N4007 can be used as a rectifier diode in low-power switching power supply to convert the pulse current output by the converter into smooth direct current. Switching power supply is an efficient power conversion method that converts input voltage into high-frequency pulses through a fast switching power converter (usually a switching transistor or switching IC), and then converts it into the required DC output through a rectification and filtering process Voltage.

6.Low-frequency circuit: In some low-frequency circuits, 1N4007 can be used as a reverse protection device to prevent misoperation or reverse voltage in the circuit from damaging other components. When reverse voltage or current occurs in the circuit, the 1N4007 diode will conduct quickly, directing reverse electrical stress toward itself, thereby protecting other components from damage. Because of its relatively high reverse voltage tolerance (typically 1000V), this diode can effectively withstand reverse voltages due to misoperation, power supply polarity reversal, or other reasons.

7.LED lights: In the rectifier circuit of LED lights, 1N4007 diodes can convert alternating current into direct current and provide stable power supply for LEDs. For LED lights, stable DC power supply is very important. LEDs typically require a constant current or voltage to maintain brightness and color consistency. The DC output from the rectifier bridge may then be passed through a filter capacitor to further smooth the output to reduce any residual ripple (i.e. AC component), thus providing a more stable DC power supply to the LED lamp.

8.Household appliances: 1N4007 diodes can be used in the rectifier circuits of household appliances such as televisions, stereos, electric fans, etc. to convert 220 volt alternating current into direct current. In the rectifier circuits of these household appliances, 1N4007 diodes are often used together with other diodes and components to form a rectifier bridge or similar circuit topology. In this way, the 220-volt AC power can be converted into unidirectional direct current through full-wave rectification to meet the working needs of the internal circuit of the appliance.

9.Vehicle electronics: 1N4007 diodes can be used in the rectification circuits of vehicle electronic equipment such as cars and motorcycles to convert the vehicle's power supply into stable direct current. In vehicle electronic systems, the vehicle's battery usually provides DC power, but sometimes in order to increase power supply capacity or obtain power from other AC power sources (such as the output of a generator), a rectifier circuit is needed to convert AC power into DC power. At this time, the 1N4007 diode can be used as part of the rectifier bridge to convert alternating current into direct current and provide stable power supply for on-board electronic equipment.

10.Power adapter: In the rectifier circuit of the power adapter, the 1N4007 diode can convert 220 volt or 110 volt alternating current into direct current to provide stable power supply for other electronic devices. The 1N4007 diode usually forms a rectifier bridge with three other diodes. Through the alternating conduction of these four diodes, it is ensured that no matter how the positive and negative half cycles of the alternating current change, the current can be guided in the same direction, thereby generating pulsating direct current.

11.Power rectifier: 1N4007 is often used in the rectifier part of the power circuit to convert alternating current into direct current. It can be used as part of a bridge rectifier circuit in the power supply system of household appliances, electronic equipment, etc. The bridge rectifier circuit is a common rectification topology that uses four diodes (two forward and two reverse) to ensure a continuous DC output regardless of the positive or negative input AC power. The 1N4007 diode is often used as part of a bridge rectifier circuit, working together with three other diodes of the same type. This kind of rectifier circuit is widely used in various power systems such as household appliances and electronic equipment. Household appliances such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. all require stable DC power to drive their internal electronic circuits. Similarly, various electronic equipment, such as computers, communication equipment, medical equipment, etc., also rely on stable DC power to ensure their normal operation.

 

Ⅷ.Method of testing 1N4007


1.Use a multimeter to test the reverse breakdown voltage
•Slowly increase the test voltage until current begins to flow. This voltage value is the reverse breakdown voltage.
•Set the multimeter to reverse voltage measurement mode or diode test mode.
•Connect the positive electrode (red test lead) to the cathode of the 1N4007 and the negative electrode (black test lead) to the anode.

2.Use a multimeter to test the forward voltage
•Connect the positive lead (red test lead) to the anode (the end marked with the arrow) of the 1N4007 and the negative lead (black test lead) to the cathode.
•Read the forward conduction voltage value displayed by the multimeter, usually between 0.5V and 0.8V.
•Set the multimeter to diode test mode or forward voltage measurement mode.

3.Observe whether the appearance and packaging are damaged
•Make sure the leads are not broken or bent, and the package is not significantly deformed.
•Check the appearance of 1N4007 for obvious damage, cracks or scorching.

4.Confirm polarity and identification
•Confirm the polarity mark of 1N4007 to ensure correct connection.
•Prior to testing, polarity can be verified using the diode test mode of a multimeter.


Ⅸ.1N4007 replacement model


1N4007GHR0
1N4007GP
1N4007GA0G
1N4007G


Frequently Asked Questions


1.How can you test the functionality of 1N4007?
You can test the functionality of 1N4007 using a multimeter in diode test mode to measure its forward and reverse voltage characteristics.


2.What is the reverse breakdown voltage of 1N4007?
The reverse breakdown voltage of 1N4007 is typically greater than 1000 volts.


3.What is the maximum average forward rectified current of 1N4007?
The maximum average forward rectified current of 1N4007 is 1 ampere.

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